American Civil War

1861

  1. Delaware votes no to  secede from the Union. January 3 1861.
  2. Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union. January 9 1861.
  3. Florida secedes from the Union. January 10 1861.
  4. Alabama secedes from the Union. January 11 1861.
  5. Major Robert Anderson sends dispatches to Washington. January 12 1861.
  6. Georgia secedes from the Union. January 19 1861.
  7. Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate. January 21 1861.
  8. Louisiana secedes from the Union. January 26 1861.
  9. Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. state. January 29 1861.
  10. Texas secedes from the Union. February 1 1861.
  11. Provisional Confederate States Congress is formed by representatives from the first six break-away states. February 4 1861.
  12. The Confederate States of America are formed, comprising the first six break-away States. February 8 1861.
  13. Jefferson Davis is elected the Provisional President of the Confederate States of America February 9 1861.
  14. The U.S. House unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state. February 11 1861.
  15. Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the provisional president of the Confederate States of America. February 18 1861.
  16. Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D.C. after an assassination attempt in Baltimore. February 23 1861.
  17. Colorado is organized as a United States territory.  February 28 1861.
  18. Nevada is organized as a United States territory March 2 1861.
  19. President Abraham Lincoln takes office, succeeding James Buchanan. March 4 1861.
  20. The “Stars and Bars” is adopted as the flag of the Confederate States of America. March 4 1861.
  21. The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted. March 11 1861.
  22. Vice President of the Confederacy, gives the infamous Cornerstone Speech in Savannah, Georgia, in which he declares that slavery is the natural condition of blacks and the foundation of the Confederacy. March 21 1861.
  23. Confederate Arizona: convention in present-day Tucson ratified the ordinance of secession of southern part of New Mexico Territory. March 28 1861.
  24. Bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina. April 12 1861.
  25. Fort Sumter surrenders to Southern forces. April 13 1861.
  26. President Abraham Lincoln issues a Proclamation calling for 75,000 men to confront in the South, “combinations too powerful to be suppressed in the ordinary way”. April 15 1861.
  27. The state of Virginia secedes from the Union. April 17 1861.
  28. Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia. April 20 1861.
  29. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in the United States. April 29 1861.
  30. Arkansas secedes from the Union. May 6 1861.
  31. Tennessee secedes from the Union. May 7 1861.
  32. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom issues a “proclamation of neutrality” which recognizes the breakaway states as having belligerent rights. May 13 1861.
  33.  Kentucky proclaims its neutrality which lasts until September 3, when Confederate forces enter the state. May 20 1861.
  34. North Carolina secedes from the Union. May 20 1861.
  35. The state of Virginia’s ordinance of secession from the United States is ratified May 23 1861.
  36. Confederate States signed Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws in Indian Territory. July 12 1861.
  37.  The Battle of Corrick’s Ford takes place in western Virginia. July 13 1861.
  38. First Battle of Bull Run July 21 1861.
  39. Crittenden–Johnson Resolution. July 25 1861.
  40. George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac July 26 1861.
  41. In order to help pay for the war effort, the United States government issues the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861 August 5 1861.
  42. US army abolishes flogging Augyst 5 1861.
  43. Confederate General Leonidas Polk invades neutral Kentucky, prompting the state legislature to ask for Union assistance. September 3 1861.
  44. Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant bloodlessly capture Paducah, Kentucky, which gives the Union control of the mouth of the Tennessee River. September 6 1861.
  45. Battle of Santa Rosa Island October 9 1861.
  46. Battle of Balls Bluff September 21 1861.
  47. The Missouri legislature takes up a bill for Missouri’s secession from the Union. October 28 1861.
  48. Missouri secession payed October 30 1861.
  49. The Missouri secession bill is signed by Governor Jackson. October 31 1861.
  50.  U.S. President Abraham Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army, replacing the aged General Winfield Scott. November 1 1861.
  51. Western Department Union General John C. Frémont is relieved of command and replaced by David Hunter. November 2 1861.
  52. Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America. November 3 1861.
  53. Battle of Belmont November 7 1861.
  54. Trent Affair November 8 1861.
  55. Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin Secretary of War. November 21 1861.
  56. Kentucky is accepted into the Confederate States of America.

1861

_______________________________________________

1862

  1. French, Spanish, and British forces arrive in Veracruz, Mexico, beginning the French intervention in Mexico. January 6 1862.
  2. John Gately Downey, 7th Governor of California, is succeeded by Amasa Leland Stanford. January 10 1862.
  3. The first US ironclad warship, the USS Monitor, is launched. January 30 1862.
  4. Julia Ward Howe’s “Battle Hymn of the Republic” is published for the first time in the Atlantic Monthly. February 1 1862.
  5. General Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States its first victory of the war, by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee. February 6 1862.
  6. Battle of Fort Donelson: General Ulysses S. Grant attacks Fort Donelson, Tennessee, capturing it on the last day. February 11- 16 1862.
  7.  Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated in Richmond, Virginia, to a 6-year term as president of the Confederate States of America. February 22 1862.
  8. Battle of Pear Ridge March 7 1862.
  9. The iron-clad CSS Virginia (formerly USS Merrimack) is launched at Hampton Roads, Virginia; the Battle of Hampton Roads starts the same day. March 8 1862.
  10. First battle between two ironclad warships, the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia, begins. March 9 1862.
  11. The U.S. federal government forbids all Union army officers from returning fugitive slaves, thus effectively annulling the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and setting the stage for the Emancipation Proclamation. March 13 1862.
  12. Small Pox epidemy of San Fransisco March 13 1862.
  13. Battle of Glorieta Pass March 28 1862.
  14. The Spanish and the British end their alliance with France in the French intervention in Mexico. April 1 1862.
  15. Battle of Yorktown April 5 1862.
  16. Battle of Shiloh April 6 1862.
  17. Andrew’s Raid April 12 1862.
  18. Capture of New Orleans April 25 1862.
  19. Confederate garrison at Fort Macon, North Carolina surrenders. April 26 1862.
  20. California State Normal School May 2 1862.
  21. Battle of Puebla May 5 1862.
  22. The ironclad CSS Virginia is scuttled in the James River northwest of Norfolk, Virginia. May 11 1862.
  23. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs a bill into law creating the U.S. Bureau of Agriculture. May 15 1862.
  24. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs the Homestead Act into law. May 20 1862.
  25. Battle of Fair Oaks
  26. Evactuation of Fort Pillow
  27. Capture of Memphis
  28. Battle of Memphis
  29. Battle of Cross Keys
  30. Secretary of State of Kansas, is convicted and removed from office as the result of a bond scandal, becoming the first state executive official to be impeached and removed from office in American history. June 12 1862.
  31. Battle of Mechanicsville. June 26 1862.The Bureau of Internal Revenue, the forerunner of the Internal Revenue Service, is established in the United States. July 1 1862.
  32. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs into law the Pacific Railroad Acts, authorizing construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. July 1 1862.
  33. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs the Morrill Land-Grant Act into law July 2 1862.
  34. David G. Farragut becomes the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy July 16 1862.
  35. Henry W. Halleck takes command of the Union Army. July 23 1862.
  36. Battle of Baton Rouge August 5 1862.
  37. The Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas is scuttled on the Mississippi River.  August 6 1862.
  38. Battle Cedar Mountain August 9 1862.
  39. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln meets with a group of prominent African-Americans August 16 1862.
  40. Dakota War of 1862 August 17- August 19.
  41. Second Battle of Bull Run August 28-30 1862.
  42. Battle of Richmond August 29-30 1862.
  43. Battle of Chantilly September 1 1862.
  44. President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George B. McClellan to full command September 2 1862.
  45. In the Confederacy’s first invasion of the North, General Robert E. Lee leads 55,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River September 5 1862.
  46. Battle of Antietam September 17 1862.
  47. The Allegheny Arsenal explosion September 17 1862.
  48. Battle of Iuka September 17 1862.
  49. Battle of Perryville October 8 1862.
  50. Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart and his men loot Chambersburg, Pennsylvania October 11 1862.
  51.  Abraham Lincoln removes George B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army. November 5 1862.
  52. Battle of Cane Hill November 281862.
  53. President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery December 1 1862.
  54. The first United States Navy hospital ships enter service. December 2 1862.
  55. Yazoo Pass Expedition December 12 1862.
  56. Battle of Fredricksburg December 13 1862.
  57. General Order No.11 December 17 1862.
  58. William D. Duly hangs 38 Dakota Sioux Indians in Minnesota. December 26 1862.
  59. Battle of Chickasaw Bayou December 26- 29 1862.
  60. USS Monitor sinking December 30 1862.
  61. Abraham Lincoln signs an act that admits West Virginia to the Union, thus dividing Virginia into two December 31 1862.

1862

___________________________________________________

1863

  1. Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation during the third year of the American Civil War, making the abolition of slavery in the Confederate states an official war goal. January 1 1863.
  2. The first claim under the Homestead Act is made, for a farm in Nebraska. January 1 1863.
  3. Harper’s Weekly publishes Thomas Nast‘s first drawing of the modern Santa Claus January 3 1863.
  4. Ground is broken in Sacramento, California, on the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States. January 8 1863.
  5. Battle of Arkansas Post January 11 1863.
  6. French intervention in Mexico January 15 1863.
  7. American Indian Wars January 29 1863.
  8. General Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren get married in New York City; P. T. Barnum takes an entrance fee. February 10 1862.
  9. Kansas State Agricultural College is established as the first land grant college. February 16 1863.
  10. Arizona becomes US territory February 24 1863.
  11. Abraham Lincoln signs the National Banking Act into law. February 26 1863.
  12. Idaho territory part of US March 3 1863.
  13.  The SS Georgiana is destroyed on her maiden voyage while attempting to run the blockade into Charleston, South Carolina. March 19 1863.
  14. Battle of The Washingyons April 20 1863.
  15. Battle of Jackson May 14 1863.
  16. Siege of Vicksburg
  17. Siege of Port Hudson
  18. The 54th Massachusetts, the first African-American regiment, leaves Boston to fight for the Union.
  19. Battle of Brandy Station
  20. Second Battle of Winchester
  21. Battle of Aldie
  22. West Virginia admitted as 35th state
  23. Battle of Gettysburg
  24. Siege of Vicksburg
  25. New York City draft riots
  26. Battle of Shimonoseki Straits
  27. Battle of Honey Springs
  28. Morgan’s Raid
  29. American Indian Wars
  30. Battle of Gettysburg
  31. Bombardement of Fort Sumter
  32. Battle of Lawrence
  33. Western Railroad from Fayetteville completed.
  34. Battle of Chicamauaga
  35. First national Thanksgiving October 3 1863
  36. Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road starts service.
  37. Battle of Bristoe Station
  38. The Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley sinks during a test
  39. Battle of Wauhatchie
  40. Battle of Campbell’s Station
  41. Siege of Knoxwille
  42. Gettysburg Adress
  43. Battle of Chattanooga III
  44. Battle of Lookout Mountain
  45. Battle of Missionary Ridge
  46. Mine Run
  47. Association Fotball
  48. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow writes the poem “Christmas Bells

1863

_____________________________________________________

1864

  1. The tiny Confederate hand-propelled submarine H. L. Hunley sinks the USS Housatonic (1861) using a spar torpedo in Charleston Harbor
  2. The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville
  3. Abraham Lincoln appoints Ulysses S. Grant commander in chief of all Union armies.
  4. Red River Campaign
  5. Battle of Fort Pillow
  6. Coinage Act of 1864
  7. Battle of Wilderness
  8. Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
  9. Battle of Yellow Tavern
  10. Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: The “Bloody Angle
  11. Battle of Resaca
  12. Battle of New Market
  13. Civil War Gold hoax
  14. Battle Ware Bottom Church
  15. Montana Territory is organized out of parts of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory
  16. Battle of Piedmont
  17. Battle of Petersburg
  18. Battle of Noonday Creek
  19. Battle of Brice’s Crossroads
  20. Battle of Cold Harbor
  21. Alrington National Cemetary
  22. Battle of Cherbourg
  23. Battle of Kennasaw Mountain
  24. President Lincoln issues a true proclamation of conscription of 500,000 men for the U.S. Civil War.
  25. Battle of Peachtree Creek
  26. Battle of Atlanta
  27. Second Battle of Kernstown
  28. Battle of Ezra Church
  29. Confederate spy Belle Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison
  30. Battle of the Crater
  31. Elgin Watch company
  32. Battle of Mobile Bay
  33. Battle of Globe Tavern
  34. Atlanta Assault
  35. Atlanta evacuation
  36. Union forces in Atlanta
  37. Atlanta evacuation
  38. Second battle of Cabincreek
  39. First battle of Saltville
  40. Battle of Tom’s Brook
  41. Second battle of Fair Oaks
  42. Nevada 36th state
  43. Battle of Johnsville
  44. The capital of Idaho Territory is moved from Lewiston to Boise; North Idaho declares the move illegal and proposes secession.
  45. Abraham Lincoln reelected
  46. Sherman’s March to the Sea
  47. Confederate Army of Manhattan starts fires in more than 20 locations in an unsuccessful attempt to burn down New York City.
  48. American Indian Wars Sand Creek massacre
  49. Second battle of Franklin
  50. Battle of Nashville

1864

_____________________________________________________

1865

  1. New York Stock Exchange
  2. Second battle of Fort Fisher
  3. Capture of Fort Fisher
  4. The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution passed
  5. Robert E.Lee general in-cheif
  6. Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.
  7. Tennessee adopts new constitution
  8. The U.S. Congress authorizes formation of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands.
  9. Lincoln inaugurated for a second term; Andrew Johnson becomes Vice President.
  10. Washington College and Jefferson College are merged
  11. The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops.
  12. The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
  13. Claywater Meteorite” explodes just before reaching ground level in Vernon County, Wisconsin
  14. Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union.
  15. Battle of Five Forks
  16. Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
  17.  Confederate States Army General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union Army General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House
  18. Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
  19. United States Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
  20. Inauguration of Andrew Johnson: President Lincoln dies early this morning from his gunshot wound. Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the United States,
  21. Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet arrive in Charlotte, North Carolina
  22. Confederate States Army General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to Union Army
  23. John Wilkes Booth in a Virginia barn, and cavalryman Boston Corbett shoots the assassin dead.
  24. steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,300 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,800, mostly Union survivors of the Andersonville Prison
  25. Governor of New York Reuben Fenton signs a bill formally creating Cornell University
  26. Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General
  27. the first train robbery in the United States takes place. North Bend Ohio
  28. Jefferson Davis meets with his Confederate Cabinet (14 officials) for the last time, in Washington, Georgia
  29. Jefferson Davis is captured by the Union Army
  30. Battle of Palmito Ranch
  31. International Telepgraph Union
  32. Union Army troops parade down Pennsylvania Avenue
  33. Union Major General Gordon Granger lands at Galveston
  34. Ends at Fort Towson in Oklahoma Territory, Confederate General Stand Watie
  35. the four conspirators condemned to death during the trial are hanged, including David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Payne and Mary Surratt. Her son, John Surratt, escapes execution by fleeing to Canada
  36. Wild Bill Hickock Shootout
  37. The steamer Brother Jonathan sinks off the California coast, killing 225.
  38. Champ Ferguson first convicted for War Crimes during Civil War
  39. Florida drafts constution
  40. Standard Oli Company
  41.  SS Republic sinks off the Georgia coast
  42. Surrender to the British at Liverpool of the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah
  43. Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged
  44. The United States Congress creates the United States House Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Banking and Commerce
  45. Secretary Seward declares the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution  ratified by three-quarters of the states (including those in secession) as of December 6; slavery is legally outlawed in the last two slave states of Kentucky and Delaware and the remaining 45,000 slaves are freed.
  46. The Kappa Alpha Order is founded at Washington College

1865